Subgenomic T cell receptor alpha and delta (TRA/TRD) loci in common carp

Masaharu Okano, Jiro Miyamae, Kohei Sakurai, Takuya Yamaguchi, Ren Uehara, Fumihiko Katakura, Tadaaki Moritomo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In jawed vertebrates, the T cell receptor alpha (TRA) and delta (TRD) genes, which encode the TRα and TRδ chains, respectively, are located as a nested structure on a single chromosome. To date, no animal has been reported to harbor multiple TRA/TRD loci on different chromosomes. Therefore, herein, we describe the first full annotation of the TRA/TRD genomic regions of common carp, an allo-tetraploid fish species that experiences cyprinid-specific whole-genome duplication (WGD) in evolution. Fine genomic maps of TRA/TRD genomic regions 1 and 2, on LG30 and LG22, respectively, were constructed using the annotations of complete sets of TRA and TRD genes, including TRA/TRD variable (V), TRA junction (J), and constant (C), TRD diversity (D), and the J and C genes. The structure and synteny of the TRA/TRD genomic regions were highly conserved in zebrafish, indicating that these regions are on individual chromosomes. Furthermore, analysis of the variable regions of the TRA and TRD genes in a monoclonal T cell line revealed that both subgenomic regions 1 and 2 were indeed rearranged. Although carp TRAV and TRDV genes were phylogenetically divided into different lineages, they were mixed and organized into the TRA/TRD V gene clusters on the genome, similar to that in other vertebrates. Notably, 285 potential TRA/TRD V genes were detected in the TRA/TRD genomic regions, which is the most abundant number of genes in vertebrates and approximately two-fold that in zebrafish. The recombination signal sequences (RSSs) at the end of each V gene differed between TRAV and TRDV, suggesting that RSS variations might separate each V gene into a TRα or TRδ chain. This study is the first to describe subgenomic TRA/TRD loci in animals. Our findings provide fundamental insights to elucidate the impact of WGD on the evolution of immune repertoire.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109421
JournalFish and Shellfish Immunology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Allo-tetraploid
  • Clonal T cell
  • Common carp
  • Gene rearrangement
  • Recombination signal sequences
  • TRA/TRD genomic region


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