Recent Clinical Treatment and Basic Research on the Alveolar Bone

Sachio Tsuchida, Tomohiro Nakayama

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The periodontal ligament is located between the bone (alveolar bone) and the cementum of the tooth, and it is connected by tough fibers called Sharpey’s fibers. To maintain healthy teeth, the foundation supporting the teeth must be healthy. Periodontal diseases, also known as tooth loss, cause the alveolar bone to dissolve. The alveolar bone, similar to the bones in other body parts, is repeatedly resorbed by osteoclasts and renewed by osteogenic cells. This means that an old bone is constantly being resorbed and replaced by a new bone. In periodontal diseases, the alveolar bone around the teeth is absorbed, and as the disease progresses, the alveolar bone shrinks gradually. In most cases, the resorbed alveolar bone does not return to its original form even after periodontal disease is cured. Gum covers the tooth surface so that it matches the shape of the resorbed alveolar bone, exposing more of the tooth surface than before, making the teeth look longer, leaving gaps between the teeth, and in some cases causing teeth to sting. Previously, the only treatment for periodontal diseases was to stop the disease from progressing further before the teeth fell out, and restoration to the original condition was almost impossible. However, a treatment method that can help in the regeneration of the supporting tissues of the teeth destroyed by periodontal diseases and the restoration of the teeth to their original healthy state as much as possible is introduced. Recently, with improvements in implant material properties, implant therapy has become an indispensable treatment method in dentistry and an important prosthetic option. Treatment methods and techniques, which are mainly based on experience, have gradually accumulated scientific evidence, and the number of indications for treatment has increased. The development of bone augmentation methods has contributed remarkably to the expansion of indications, and this has been made possible by various advances in materials science. The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cell technology for regenerating periodontal tissues, including alveolar bone, is expected to be applied in the treatment of diseases, such as tooth loss and periodontitis. This review focuses on the alveolar bone and describes clinical practice, techniques, and the latest basic research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number843
JournalBiomedicines
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • alveolar bone
  • alveolar bone resorption
  • alveolar surgery
  • implant therapy
  • periodontal disease
  • periodontal tissue

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