Quantitative estimation of pulmonary artery wedge pressure from chest radiographs by a regression convolutional neural network

Yuki Saito, Yuto Omae, Daisuke Fukamachi, Koichi Nagashima, Saki Mizobuchi, Yohei Kakimoto, Jun Toyotani, Yasuo Okumura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Recent studies reported that a convolutional neural network (CNN; a deep learning model) can detect elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) from chest radiographs, the diagnostic images most commonly used for assessing pulmonary congestion in heart failure. However, no method has been published for quantitatively estimating PAWP from such radiographs. We hypothesized that a regression CNN, an alternative type of deep learning, could be a useful tool for quantitatively estimating PAWP in cardiovascular diseases. We retrospectively enrolled 936 patients with cardiovascular diseases who had undergone right heart catheterization (RHC) and chest radiography and estimated PAWP by constructing a regression CNN based on the VGG16 model. We randomly categorized 80% of the data as training data (training group, n = 748) and 20% as test data (test group, n = 188). Moreover, we tuned the learning rate—one of the model parameters—by 5-hold cross-validation of the training group. Correlations between PAWP measured by RHC [ground truth (GT) PAWP] and PAWP derived from the regression CNN (estimated PAWP) were tested. To visualize how the regression CNN assessed the images, we created a regression activation map (RAM), a visualization technique for regression CNN. Estimated PAWP correlated significantly with GT PAWP in both the training (r = 0.76, P < 0.001) and test group (r = 0.62, P < 0.001). Bland–Altman plots found a mean (SEM) difference between GT and estimated PAWP of − 0.23 (0.16) mm Hg in the training and − 0.05 (0.41) mm Hg in the test group. The RAM showed that our regression CNN model estimated high PAWP by focusing on the cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion. In the test group, the area under the curve (AUC) for detecting elevated PAWP (≥ 18 mm Hg) produced by the regression CNN model was similar to the AUC of an experienced cardiologist (0.86 vs 0.83, respectively; P = 0.24). This proof-of-concept study shows that regression CNN can quantitatively estimate PAWP from standard chest radiographs in cardiovascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1387-1394
Number of pages8
JournalHeart and Vessels
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Deep learning
  • Diagnostic method
  • Heart failure


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