Prognostic benefit of early diagnosis with exercise stress testing in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Yuki Saito, Masaru Obokata, Tomonari Harada, Kazuki Kagami, Naoki Wada, Yasuo Okumura, Hideki Ishii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Delayed diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) can lead to poor clinical outcomes. Exercise stress testing, especially exercise stress echocardiography, plays a primary role in the early detection of HFpEF among dyspnoeic patients, but its prognostic significance is unknown, as is whether initiation of guideline-directed therapy could improve clinical outcomes in such early-stage HFpEF. Methods and results Ergometry exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 368 patients with exertional dyspnoea. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was diagnosed by a total score of HFA-PEFF algorithm Step 2 (resting assessments) and Step 3 (exercise testing) ≥ 5 or elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest or during exercise. The primary endpoint comprised all-cause mortality and worsening HF events. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was diagnosed in 182 patients, while 186 had non-cardiac dyspnoea (controls). Patients diagnosed with HFpEF had a seven-fold increased risk of composite events than that of controls [hazard ratio (HR) 7.52; 95% confidential interval (CI), 2.24–25.2; P = 0.001]. Patients with an HFA-PEFF Step 2 < 5 points but had an HFA-PEFF ≥ 5 after exercise stress testing (Steps 2–3) had a higher risk of composite events than controls. Guideline-recommended therapies were initiated in 90 patients diagnosed with HFpEF after index exercise testing. Patients with early treatment experienced lower rates of composite outcomes than those without (HR 0.33; 95% CI 0.12–0.91; P = 0.03). Conclusion Identification of HFpEF by exercise stress testing may allow risk stratification in dyspnoeic patients. Furthermore, initiation of guideline-directed therapy may be associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage HFpEF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)902-911
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Volume30
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Diagnosis
  • Exercise stress testing
  • Guideline-oriented therapy
  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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