Oxyhaemoglobin Level Measured Using Near-Infrared Spectrometer Is Associated with Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction After Cardiac Arrest in Rats

Yu Okuma, Koichiro Shinozaki, Tsukasa Yagi, Kei Hayashida, Tomoaki Aoki, Tai Yin, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Taku Iwami, Lance B. Becker

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO), measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), can play an important role in post-cardiac arrest (CA) care as this emerging technology allows for noninvasive real-time monitoring of the dynamic changes of tissue oxygenation. We recently reported that oxyhaemoglobin (oxy-Hb), measured using NIRS, may be used to evaluate the quality of chest compressions by monitoring the brain tissue oxygenation, which is a critical component for successful resuscitation. Mitochondria are the key to understanding the pathophysiology of post-CA oxygen metabolism. In this study, we focused on mitochondrial dysfunction, aiming to explore its association with CBO parameters such as oxy-Hb and deoxyhaemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) or tissue oxygenation index (TOI). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. We applied NIRS between the nasion and the upper cervical spine. Following 10 min of CA, the rats underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with a bolus injection of 20 μg/kg epinephrine. At 10 and 20 min after CPR, brain, and kidney tissues were collected. We isolated mitochondria from these tissues and evaluated the association between CBO and mitochondrial oxygen consumption ratios. There were no significant differences in the mitochondrial yields (10 vs. 20 min after resuscitation: brain, 1.33 ± 0.68 vs. 1.30 ± 0.75 mg/g; kidney, 19.5 ± 3.2 vs. 16.9 ± 5.3 mg/g, respectively). State 3 mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, known as ADP-stimulated respiration, demonstrated a significant difference at 10 vs. 20 min after CPR (brain, 170 ± 26 vs. 115 ± 17 nmol/min/mg protein; kidney, 170 ± 20 vs. 130 ± 16 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference in ADP non-dependent state 4 oxygen consumption rates (brain, 34.0 ± 6.7 vs. 31.8 ± 10 nmol/min/mg protein; kidney, 29.8 ± 4.8 vs. 21.0 ± 2.6 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). Consequently, the respiratory control ratio (RCR = state 3/state 4) showed a significant difference over time, but this was only noted in the brain (brain, 5.0 ± 0.29 vs. 3.8 ± 0.64; kidney, 5.8 ± 0.53 vs. 6.2 ± 0.25 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). The oxy-Hb levels had a dynamic change after resuscitation, and they had a significant association with the RCR of the brain mitochondria (r = 0.8311, p = 0.0102), whereas deoxy-Hb and TOI did not (r = −0.1252, p = 0.7677; r = 0.4186, p = 0.302, respectively). The RCRs of the kidney mitochondria did not have a significant association with CBO (oxy-Hb, r = −0.1087, p = 0.7977; deoxy-Hb, r = 0.1565, p = 0.7113; TOI, r = −0.1687, p = 0.6896, respectively). The brain mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction occurred over time, and it was seen at the time points between 10 and 20 min after CPR. The oxy-Hb level was associated with brain mitochondrial dysfunction during the early post-resuscitation period.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Cerebral blood oxygenation
  • Mitochondria
  • NIRS
  • Tissue oxygenation index


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