Mass spectrometry-based microbiological testing for blood stream infection

Fumio Nomura, Sachio Tsuchida, Syota Murata, Mamoru Satoh, Kazuyuki Matsushita

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The most successful application of mass spectrometry (MS) in laboratory medicine is identification (ID) of microorganisms using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in blood stream infection. We describe MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial ID with particular emphasis on the methods so far developed to directly identify microorganisms from positive blood culture bottles with MALDI-TOF MS including our own protocols. We touch upon the increasing roles of Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as well. Main body: Because blood culture bottles contain a variety of nonbacterial proteins that may interfere with analysis and interpretation, appropriate pretreatments are prerequisites for successful ID. Pretreatments include purification of bacterial pellets and short-term subcultures to form microcolonies prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Three commercial protocols are currently available: the Sepsityper® kit (Bruker Daltonics), the Vitek MS blood culture kit (bioMerieux, Inc.), and the rapid BACpro® II kit (Nittobo Medical Co., Tokyo). Because these commercially available kits are costly and bacterial ID rates using these kits are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive bacteria, various home-brew protocols have been developed: 1. Stepwise differential sedimentation of blood cells and microorganisms, 2. Combination of centrifugation and lysis procedures, 3. Lysis-vacuum filtration, and 4. Centrifugation and membrane filtration technique (CMFT). We prospectively evaluated the performance of this CMFT protocol compared with that of Sepsityper® using 170 monomicrobial positive blood cultures. Although preliminary, the performance of the CMFT was significantly better than that of Sepsityper®, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. MALDI-TOF MS-based testing of polymicrobial blood specimens, however, is still challenging. Also, its contribution to assessment of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics is still limited. For this purpose, liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) should be more useful because this approach can identify as many as several thousand peptide sequences. Conclusion: MALDI-TOF MS is now an essential tool for rapid bacterial ID of pathogens that cause blood stream infection. For the purpose of assessment of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics of the pathogens, the roles of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) will increase in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
JournalClinical Proteomics
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bacteremia
  • Blood stream infection
  • Centrifugation and membrane filtration technique (CMFT)
  • Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)
  • MALDI Biotyper
  • Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)
  • Rapid BACpro II
  • Sepsityper
  • Vitex MS

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