Immune checkpoint inhibitor as a therapeutic choice for double cancer: A case series

Hiroshi Aoki, Naoki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Takahashi, Masayuki Honda, Tomohiro Kaneko, Shuhei Arima, Tomotaka Ishii, Taku Mizutani, Ryota Masuzaki, Kazushige Nirei, Hiroaki Yamagami, Masahiro Ogawa, Tatsuo Kanda, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Katsuhiro Miura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occasionally presents with simultaneous or metachronous primary malignancies of other organs. Despite the limited scope of cytocidal anticancer drugs or molecular targeted agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can still be used for various malignancies. Here, we present cases of double cancers including HCC treated with ICIs. Case Report: Case 1: A 70-year-old man with lung cancer and 80-mm HCC underwent nivolumab therapy. The sizes of both cancers remained constant for nine months. Case 2: A 58-year-old man with pharyngeal cancer and HCC. Nivolumab was administered, but was withdrawn after one session because of progressive disease. Case 3: A 71-year-old man with a 5 cm HCC invading the inferior vena cava, and early esophageal cancer. HCC showed a significant volume reduction and esophageal cancer demonstrated slight improvement by atezolizumab and bevacizumab therapy. Conclusion: A combination therapy including ICI is a promising treatment option for HCC with concurrent malignancies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6225-6230
Number of pages6
JournalAnticancer Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Atezolizumab
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor
  • Multiple primary malignancies
  • Nivolumab
  • Squamous cell carcinoma


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