Histone-deacetylase-inhibitory effects of periodontopathic-bacterial metabolites induce human gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cell death

Kazuki Uemichi, Yoshikazu Mikami, Takayasu Watanabe, Keiji Shinozuka, Morio Tonogi, Hiromasa Tsuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Dental plaque bacteria produce high concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as bacterial metabolites. SCFA-treated gingival epithelial cells undergo cell death. Our previous reports demonstrated that butyrate-induced cell death depends on autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise mechanisms underlying SCFA-induced gingival epithelial cell death is poorly understood. Butyrate is a strong histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Therefore, we determined the involvement of HDAC inhibitory activity in SCFA-induced gingival epithelial cells. Ca9-22 cells were used as an in vitro counterpart of gingival epithelial cells. Ca9-22 cells were treated with HDAC inhibitors in the presence or absence of C646, a P300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor, and compared the number of dead cells, which are measured using SYTOX Green dye. Acetylation levels of histone H3 were examined using western blotting. Changes in transcriptomes during the butyrate and C646 treatment were examined using RNA sequencing analysis. The butyrate or propionate-treatment of Ca9-22 cells induced acetylation of histone H3, while the C646 treatment strongly reduced the elevated acetylation levels. Accordingly, butyrate or propionate-induced cell death was inhibited by the C646 treatment. Similar results were obtained when other HDAC inhibitors were used. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of numerous genes was altered by butyrate-induced histone acetylation. Moreover, some autophagy and ROS-related genes found in the altered genes might induce cell death. This study suggests the need for HDAC-inhibitory activity of bacterial metabolites to induce cell death, and the effects might enhance autophagy and ROS production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)658-667
Number of pages10
JournalOdontology / the Society of the Nippon Dental University
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Autophagy
  • Cellular death
  • Histone deacetylase
  • Reactive oxygen species


Dive into the research topics of 'Histone-deacetylase-inhibitory effects of periodontopathic-bacterial metabolites induce human gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cell death'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this