GIS-based identification and analysis of suitable evacuation areas and routes in flood-prone zones of Nakhon Si Thammarat municipality

Piyapong Suwanno, Chaiwat Yaibok, Thaksakorn Pornbunyanon, Chollada Kanjanakul, Chayanat Buathongkhue, Noriyasu Tsumita, Atsushi Fukuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Floods are a significant issue across Southeast Asia, with Thailand, particularly the Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality, being heavily affected due to its unique conditions such as heavy rainfall, rapid urbanization, and low-lying coastal position. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze the flood-prone areas of Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality, assess its road networks, and identify optimal evacuation locations and routes. Various data layers such as slope angle, elevation, distance from roads, rainfall, TWI, NDVI, land use, soil texture, distance from rivers, stream density, and road density are integrated using the frequency ratio method. The findings reveal areas with very high flood susceptibility, which span 198.78 sq. km (56.74%) at the high frequency level, 299.43 sq. km (37.63%) at the low frequency level, and 284.62 sq. km (53.88%) at the moderate frequency level. During flood scenarios, travel times saw an average increase to 21.4 min, which is a fourfold surge compared to regular conditions, highlighting the impact of floods on evacuation strategies. Upon evaluating the road network under flood conditions and applying network analysis techniques, efficient and safe evacuation routes were determined. The results, which underscore a fourfold increase in travel time during flood scenarios, present valuable insights for emergency management authorities across Thailand and Southeast Asia to devise comprehensive evacuation plans, thereby enhancing regional resilience against future flood events. Furthermore, the methodologies and findings are adaptable and can be applied to other flood-prone regions within Southeast Asia, contributing to improved disaster preparedness and response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-431
Number of pages16
JournalIATSS Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Evacuation planning
  • Flood-prone zones
  • Geographic information system (GIS)
  • Southeast Asia
  • Transportation routes


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