Evaluation of low-set tongue position using zero-crossing rates and mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients

Yuka Ochiai, Kimiko Yamashita, Kaori Ishii, Masashi Nakayama, Shunsuke Ishimitsu, Satoshi Horihata, Kazutaka Kasai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tongue-thrust swallowing habit from a low-set tongue position causes open bite when the tongue pushes the upper and lower front teeth. This study aimed to examine tongue position discrimination by speech zero-crossing rates and Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs). Participants (N = 225) underwent lateral cephalography to measure TPD (tongue-palate-distance) (TPD5). In addition, a trans palatal arch (TPA) was also attached to the oral cavity in nine adult participants (Non group), and a low-set tongue was imitated. Participants’ voices were recorded before and after wearing TPA, and analysis of zero-crossing rates and MFCCs was performed. TPD was measured to be 2.5(0∼16.5) mm from the central tongue, and a significant difference was found in zerocrossing rates and MFCCs between groups. As a result, we found that acoustic changes occurred due to the low-set tongue position. It was suggested that low-set tongue could be identified by speech.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1093-1098
Number of pages6
JournalICIC Express Letters, Part B: Applications
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Low-set tongue position
  • Melfrequency cepstrum coefficient
  • Tongue-thrust swallowing
  • Zero-crossing rate


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