Effect of double-layer application on the early enamel bond strength of universal adhesives

Eizo Hirokane, Toshiki Takamizawa, Yuta Kasahara, Ryo Ishii, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Wayne W. Barkmeier, Mark A. Latta, Masashi Miyazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the changes in the enamel bond strengths of universal adhesives in the early phase of specimen creation and evaluate the effect of double-layer application on enamel bond effectiveness using different etching modes. Method: Four universal adhesives, namely Clearfil Universal Bond Quick, G-Premio Bond, Scotchbond Universal, and Tokuyama Universal Bond, were used. Clearfil SE Bond two-step self-etch adhesive system was used as a comparison. Fifteen specimens per group were used for determining the shear bond strength (SBS) to bovine enamel in the etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode. The adhesive was applied to specimens in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions (single-layer application), or the adhesive was applied twice (double-layer application). The bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 5 min or 1, 6, 12, or 24 h before SBS testing. The flexural properties of the resin composite Clearfil AP-X were measured for the same storage periods. Results: All universal adhesives exhibited increased SBS values with prolonged storage periods regardless of the application technique or etching mode used. Double-layer application was associated with higher SBS values than single-layer application for most universal adhesives over the same storage period. Conclusion: Phosphoric acid pre-etching and double-layer application of universal adhesives resulted in increased enamel bond strength in the early phase of specimen bonding. Clinical relevance: Care should be taken when using universal adhesives in the self-etch mode for enamel bonding because the enamel adhesion is sensitive to the duration after filling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)907-921
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Double application technique
  • Early bonding performance
  • Enamel bond strength
  • Universal adhesive


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of double-layer application on the early enamel bond strength of universal adhesives'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this