Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range

Shunya Nakayama, Hiroshi Koie, Chungyu Pai, Yasuyo Ito-Fujishiro, Kiichi Kanayama, Tadashi Sankai, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Naohide Ageyama

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Various cardiovascular diseases can be detected and diagnosed using echocardiography. The demand for cardiovascular system research using nonhuman primates is increasing, but echocardiographic references for nonhuman primates are limited. This report describes the first comparison of echocardiographic reference values in 247 normal cynomolgus monkeys (135 females, 112 males) over a wide age range. Echocardiography, electrocardiography, blood pressure and chest X-ray images were acquired under immobilization with intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride, then cardiac structure, function, and flow velocity were assessed. Cardiac hormone levels were also tested. We found that cardiac structures positively correlated with weight, that the size of these structures stabilized after reaching maturity and that cardiac output increased according to heart size. In contrast, fractional shortening of the left ventricle, ejection fraction and flow velocity showed no significant correlations with weight or age, and age and E wave correlated negatively. These findings appear sufficiently similar to those in humans to suggest that cynomolgus monkeys can serve as a suitable model of human cardiac disease. Our data should also prove useful for surveying cardiac dysfunction in monkeys.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-344
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Animals
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Cardiac function
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cynomolgus monkey
  • Echocardiography
  • Elderly


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