Dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II genotypes associated with chronic enteropathy in French bulldogs and miniature dachshunds

Meg Nakazawa, Jiro Miyamae, Masaharu Okano, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Fumihiko Katakura, Takashi Shiina, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto, Tadaaki Moritomo, Toshihiro Watari

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Canine chronic enteropathy (CE) is a group of immunogenetic disorders of unclear etiology characterized by chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal signs and inflammation. Diagnosis of CE subtypes by treatment response is a lengthy and challenging process, particularly in refractory cases of the disease. Given known association of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II genotype and various immunogenetic disorders between and across breeds, this study was designed to examine the potential of determining susceptibility to refractory CE through identification of risk and protective genotypes in French bulldogs and miniature dachshunds—two popular dog breeds in Japan. Sequence-based genotyping of three DLA class II genes in 29 French bulldogs and 30 miniature dachshunds with refractory CE revealed a protective haplotype DLA-DRB1*002:01-DQA1*009:01-DQB1*001:01 against CE in French bulldogs (OR 0.09, 95 % CI 0.01−0.71, p = 0.0084). No statistical difference was noted between miniature dachshund cases and controls. These findings, largely disparate from a previous study on German shepherd dogs in the UK, were taken as possible indication of etiological differences in the refractory CE noted between and within breeds, and by extension, the potential of identifying such disease heterogeneity by DLA typing. The DLA-DQA1/DQB1 haplotype, protective against CE in our French bulldogs, has been reported as protective in various immune-mediated disorders such as Doberman hepatitis (Dyggve et al., 2011). Likewise, the DLA-DRB1*006:01 risk allele for Doberman hepatitis was noted in more French bulldogs with CE compared to controls, in line with reports on genotypes associated with both risk and protection being shared across various autoimmune diseases and breeds. These findings support an immunogenetic basis to the French bulldog-CE in our analysis, calling for further DLA studies working with larger samples and different breeds towards phenotypic clarification that may aid in early diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis through epigenetic approaches and breeding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110271
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Chronic enteropathy
  • Dog leukocyte antigen
  • French bulldog
  • Major histocompatibility complex class II
  • Miniature dachshund


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