Diagnostic Efficacy of Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Distinguishing Chronic Diffuse Sclerosing Osteomyelitis from Suppurative Osteomyelitis of the Mandible

Hirotaka Muraoka, Takashi Kaneda, Naohisa Hirahara, Kotaro Ito, Shunya Okada, Takumi Kondo

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Abstract

Purpose: Chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis (CDSO) is a non-suppurative inflammatory bone disease diagnosed based on combined clinical, histopathological, and radiological findings. Accurate diagnosis is important since CDSO is more refractory to treatment than suppurative osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the quantitative assessment of CDSO to distinguish it from acute suppurative osteomyelitis (ASO) and chronic suppurative osteomyelitis (CSO) of the mandible. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we analyzed MRI data of 6 patients with CDSO and 34 patients with ASO and CSO. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the three groups (CDSO, ASO, and CSO groups) were calculated, and differences were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and post-hoc Mann–Whitney tests with Bonferroni adjustments. We performed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the ability of the ADC to predict CDSO. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean ADCs in the CDSO, ASO, and CSO groups were 1.22 ± 0.04 × 10–3 mm2 /s, 1.28 ± 0.08 × 10–3 mm2/s, and 1.06 ± 0.09 × 10–3 mm2/s, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the ASO and CSO groups (P < 0.001) and CSO and CDSO groups (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the ASO and CDSO groups (P = 0.21). The ROC analysis revealed a cut-off ADC value of 1.19 for distinguishing the CSO group from the CDSO group. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the ROC curve were 1.0, 0.92, 0, 95, and 0.94, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that ADC may be useful in distinguishing CDSO from mandibular suppurative osteomyelitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-288
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • apparent diffusion coefficient
  • chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis
  • diffusion-weighted imaging
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • mandible

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