Changes in Cranial Shape and Developmental Quotient at 6 Months of Age in Preterm Infants

Aya Nakanomori, Hiroshi Miyabayashi, Yukari Tanaka, Taishin Maedomari, Chihiro Mukai, Katsuya Saito, Aya Okahashi, Nobuhiko Nagano, Ichiro Morioka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in cranial shape among preterm neonates aged 1–6 months and the relationship between developmental quotient (DQ) and cranial shape at 6 months of age. Preterm infants who were hospitalized in our hospital were prospectively followed for 6 months. The cephalic index (CI) and cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) were evaluated at 1 (T1), 3 (T2), and 6 months (T3) of age and compared with those of the full-term infants. The relationship between CI or CVAI and DQ at T3 was analyzed using the Enjoji Scale of Infant Analytical Development. A total of 26 participants born at 34.7 ± 1.9 weeks of gestation were included. The CI increased with age (T1: 77.2%, T2: 82.9%, T3: 85.4%, p < 0.01). The prevalence of dolichocephaly at T3 did not significantly differ from that in full-term infants (15.4% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.08). CVAI did not significantly differ between preterm and full-term infants. The DQ showed no significant correlation with either the CI or CVAI (correlation coefficients: 0.23 for CI, −0.01; CVAI). Dolichocephaly improved over time in preterm infants and no relationship between cranial shape and development was observed in preterm infants at 6 months of age.

Original languageEnglish
Article number855
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • development
  • dolichocephaly
  • plagiocephaly
  • preterm infant
  • three-dimensional scanner


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