Bone marrow-derived dedifferentiated fat cells exhibit similar phenotype as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with high osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration ability

Hirokatsu Sawada, Tomohiko Kazama, Yuki Nagaoka, Yoshinori Arai, Koichiro Kano, Hiroshi Uei, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Taro Matsumoto

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Abstract

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have different differentiation potential depending on the tissue of origin. Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATs) are MSC-like multipotent cells that can be prepared from mature adipocytes by ceiling culture method. It is still unknown whether DFATs derived from adipocytes in different tissue showed different phenotype and functional properties. In the present study, we prepared bone marrow (BM)-derived DFATs (BM-DFATs), BM-MSCs, subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue-derived DFATs (SC-DFATs), and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) from donor-matched tissue samples. Then, we compared their phenotypes and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. We also evaluated in vivo bone regeneration ability of these cells using a mouse femoral fracture model. Methods: BM-DFATs, SC-DFATs, BM-MSCs, and ASCs were prepared from tissue samples of knee osteoarthritis patients who received total knee arthroplasty. Cell surface antigens, gene expression profile, and in vitro differentiation capacity of these cells were determined. In vivo bone regenerative ability of these cells was evaluated by micro-computed tomography imaging at 28 days after local injection of the cells with peptide hydrogel (PHG) in the femoral fracture model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Results: BM-DFATs were successfully generated at similar efficiency as SC-DFATs. Cell surface antigen and gene expression profiles of BM-DFATs were similar to those of BM-MSCs, whereas these profiles of SC-DFATs were similar to those of ASCs. In vitro differentiation analysis revealed that BM-DFATs and BM-MSCs had higher differentiation tendency toward osteoblasts and lower differentiation tendency toward adipocytes compared to SC-DFATs and ASCs. Transplantation of BM-DFATs and BM-MSCs with PHG enhanced bone mineral density at the injection sites compared to PHG alone in the mouse femoral fracture model. Conclusions: We showed that phenotypic characteristics of BM-DFATs were similar to those of BM-MSCs. BM-DFATs exhibited higher osteogenic differentiation potential and bone regenerative ability compared to SC-DFATs and ASCs. These results suggest that BM-DFATs may be suitable sources of cell-based therapies for patients with nonunion bone fracture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number191
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Adipocytes
  • Cell therapy
  • Dedifferentiated fat cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Nonunion bone fracture

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