Bond durability of universal adhesives to intact enamel surface in different etching modes

Miho Suzuki, Toshiki Takamizawa, Eizo Hirokane, Ryo Ishii, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Wayne W. Barkmeier, Mark A. Latta, Masashi Miyazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed at determining the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives to intact enamel (IE) and ground enamel (GE) in different etching modes under thermal cycling (TC) and fatigue stresses. Two universal adhesives and a two-step self-etch adhesive were used. Enamel specimens were divided into four groups by treatment: (i) GE in etch-and-rinse, (ii) IE in etch-and-rinse, (iii) GE in self-etch, and (iv) IE in self-etch. Bonded specimens were subjected to TC, and then shear bond strengths (SBS) were conducted. SBS tests were also conducted after storage in 37°C water for 24 h (baseline). For shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing, bonded specimens were subjected to fatigue stress at a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles. At baseline, all adhesives showed significantly higher SBS values with GE than IE in self-etch mode in contrast to in etch-and-rinse mode. After TC, the universal adhesives with IE showed lower SBS values than the baseline, regardless of the etching mode. Universal adhesives showed significantly lower SFS values with IE in etch-and-rinse, but not in self-etch mode. Phosphoric acid pre-etching or grinding of the aprismatic enamel may be helpful in establishing reliable initial and long-term bonds to enamel when using universal adhesives in self-etch mode.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12768
JournalEuropean Journal of Oral Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • enamel bond durability
  • intact enamel
  • shear fatigue strength
  • thermal cycling
  • universal adhesive


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