Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of acid-electrolyzed functional water

Teinosuke Okamura, Muneaki Tamura, Hisashi Suguro, Mariko Ohtsu, Daisuke Omagari, Atsuo Yoshino, Bunnai Ogiso, Masatake Asano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used as an antimicrobial irrigant; however, it has cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects. For these reasons, development of new, safe irrigants other than NaOCl is long overdue. In the present study, the antimicrobial and noxious effects of acid-electrolyzed functional water (FW) were evaluated and compared with those of NaOCl. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Candida albicans were mixed with each tested solution for 30 s. The mixtures were then plated on brain-heart infusion agar plates, after which colony numbers were counted. Serially diluted acid FW was used to determine the actual chloride concentration (ACC) required for a bactericidal effect. Noxious effects were evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase released from HeLa cells. Acid FW and NaOCl had similar bactericidal effects against all bacterial species but not against C. albicans. An ACC of at least 10 ppm was required in order to ensure effective bacteriocidal activity and induce significant lactate dehydrogenase release. Acid FW-treated HeLa cells exhibited healthy growth, with slight retardation as compared with non-treated cells. Because of its efficient bactericidal, and less noxious, effects on human cells, acid FW may be a useful irrigant for effective root canal treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)512-515
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Oral Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Apical periodontitis
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • Sodium hypochlorite


Dive into the research topics of 'Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of acid-electrolyzed functional water'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this