Application of ionic liquid to enhance the nose-to-brain delivery of etodolac

Hiroaki Tanigawa, Naoto Suzuki, Toyofumi Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to enhance the delivery of Etodolac (ETD) to the brain through intranasal administration using an ionic liquid (IL) consisting of ETD and proline ethyl ester. The IL of ETD was prepared by mixing ETD with proline ethyl ester as a counterion in a molar ratio of 1:2.The formation of the IL was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR).The solubility of ETD in simulated nasal fluids was improved by approximately 200-fold due to the formation of IL. The intranasal administration of ETD-containing IL, which is viscous, increased the nose-to-brain delivery by approximately 7-fold 30 min after an administration of the ETD solution alone. The enhancement of ETD delivery to the brain from the nose was attributed to the enhanced retention of ETD in the nasal mucosal surface due to the viscosity of IL. The induction of prostaglandin E2 in the brain inflammation that was induced by lipopolysaccharides was significantly suppressed by up to 40% in the IL-treated group compared with the drug-untreated group. Therefore, ETD-containing IL were suggested to be useful in designing intranasal formulations for the nasal delivery of ETDs to the brain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106290
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022


  • Brain inflammation
  • Etodolac
  • Ionic liquids
  • Nose-to-brain delivery
  • Prostaglandin E


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