Acid-electrolyzed functional water-induces interleukin-1α release from intracellular storage sites in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Tomoko Takemoto, Ryo Kaetsu, Machiko Hanayama, Yuuichi Ishiyama, Masayuki Sadamura, Kensuke Nishio, Mariko Tsunoda, Masatake Asano, Mitsuru Motoyoshi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to examine the acid-electrolyzed functional water (FW)-mediated cytokine release in an oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived cell line (OSCC) following treatment with FW. FW is generated by the electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution and accelerate the burn wound healing. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the cytokine/chemokine secretion profile of HSC3 cells was examined using a cytokine array. FW treatment significantly induced interleukin (IL)-1α secretion, which was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, the HSC3 cells were pre-treated with cycloheximide (CHX) for 1 h prior to FW stimulation to determine whether the augmented IL-1α secretion was due to enhanced protein synthesis. CHX pre-treatment did not affect IL-1α secretion suggesting that the secreted IL-1α might have been derived from intracellular storage sites. The amount of IL-1α in the cell lysate of the FW-treated HSC3 cells was significantly lower than that of the non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining using a polyclonal antibody against full-length IL-1α revealed a drastic reduction in IL-1α inside the FW-treated cells. IL-1α is synthesized in its precursor form (pIL-1α) and cleaved to produce pro-piece and mature IL-1α (ppIL-1α and mIL-1α) inside the cells. In the present study, only pIL-1α was detected within the HSC3 cells in its resting state. However, FW stimulation resulted in the release of the 33 kDa and two other smaller forms (about 19 kDa) of the protein. These results indicates that FW treatment induces IL-1α secretion, a typical alarmin, from the intracellular storage in OSCC cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1746-1752
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Acid-electrolyzed functional water
  • Alarmin
  • Interleukin-1α
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived cell line


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